Ephemera (singular: ephemeron) are any transitory written or printed matter not meant to be retained or preserved. The word derives from the Greek ephemeros, meaning "lasting only one day, short-lived". Some collectible ephemera are advertising trade cards, airsickness bags, bookmarks, catalogues, greeting cards, letters, pamphlets, postcards, posters, prospectuses, defunct stock certificates and tickets. Etymology: Ephemera (ἐφήμερα) is a noun, the plural neuter of ephemeron and ephemeros, Greek and New Latin for ἐπί – epi "on, for" and ἡμέρα – hemera "day" with the ancient sense extending to the mayfly and other short lived insects and flowers and for something which lasts a day or a short period of time. Ephemera: In library and information science, the term ephemera also describes the class of published single-sheet or single page documents which are meant to be thrown away after one use. This classification excludes simple letters and photographs with no printing on them, which are considered manuscripts or typescripts. Large academic and national libraries and museums may collect, organize, and preserve ephemera as history. A particularly large and important example of such an archive is the John Johnson Collection of Printed Ephemera at the Bodleian Library, Oxford. Over 2,000 images from the John Johnson Collection are available to search online for free at VADS and more than 65,000 items are available online. The extensive Laura Seddon Greeting Card Collection from the Manchester Metropolitan University gathers 32,000 Victorian and Edwardian greeting cards and 450 Valentine's Day cards dating from the early nineteenth century, printed by the major publishers of the day. The Ephemera Kabinett at the Los-Angeles–based Institute of Cultural Inquiry contains 'first' items from cultural turning points of the last two decades, such as a copy of the first Marvel comic in which a lead character comes out of the closet and one of the first AIDS red ribbons. The Ephemera Society (EPSOC) hold regular Fairs, produce a publication (The Ephemerist) and enable collectors and dealers to better contact each other. Reginald Beer, of Frontispiece Ltd, is a member of the Society.