Australia and New Zealand antique map published c.1891. Map identifies West Australia, Northern Territory, South Australia, Queensland, New South Wales, Victoria and Tasmania. Original chromolithograph. ex libris “E. L. Kennedy May 29th. 1891, Brighton.”
Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania, and numerous smaller islands. It is the largest country in Oceania and the world’s sixth-largest country by total area.
Published by George Philip & Son, Fleet Street, E.C. George Philip, (1800–1882) was a cartographer and map publisher. He had one son, also George (1823–1902), who was admitted to the business in 1848. The eventual company, George Philip & Son Ltd, continued to operate successfully until in 1987 when it was sold to Reed International where it continued to trade as George Philip Ltd.
Chromolithography is a unique method for making multi-colour prints. This type of colour printing stemmed from the process of lithography, and it includes all types of lithography that are printed in colour. When chromolithography is used to reproduce photographs, the term photochrome is frequently used. Lithographers sought to find a way to print on flat surfaces with the use of chemicals instead of relief or intaglio printing. Chromolithography became the most successful of several methods of colour printing developed by the 19th century. The initial technique involved the use of multiple lithographic stones, one for each colour, and was still extremely expensive when done for the best quality results. Depending on the number of colours present, a chromolithograph could take months to produce, by very skilled workers. However much cheaper prints could be produced by simplifying both the number of colours used and the refinement of the detail in the image. Cheaper images, like advertisements, relied heavily on an initial black print (not always a lithograph), on which colours were then overprinted. To make an expensive reproduction print as what was once referred to as a “’chromo’”, a lithographer, with a finished painting in front of him, gradually created and corrected the many stones using proofs to look as much as possible like the painting in front of him, sometimes using dozens of layers.