Carolina pickets flying before the advance of the Federal troops on Fairfax, Virginia. Original half-page from The Illustrated London News, dated August 17th, 1861, depicting the retreat of Confederate infantry before the Union Army at Fairfax, Virginia, during the early days of the American Civil War. Page includes a wood-block engraving of the “Caves of Jedburgh – Hiding-place of the Covenanters.” The American Civil War was fought in the United States from 1861 to 1865. The result of a long-standing controversy over slavery and states’ rights, war broke out in April 1861, when Confederates attacked Fort Sumter in South Carolina, shortly after Abraham Lincoln was inaugurated. The nationalists of the Union proclaimed loyalty to the U.S. Constitution. They faced secessionists of the Confederate States of America, who advocated for states’ rights to perpetual slavery and its expansion in the Americas.
The Covenanters were a Scottish Presbyterian movement that played an important part in the history of Scotland, and to a lesser extent that of England and Ireland, during the 17th century. Presbyterian denominations tracing their history to the Covenanters and often incorporating the name continue the ideas and traditions in Scotland and internationally. They derived their name from the word covenant meaning a band, legal document or agreement, with particular reference to the Covenant between God and the Israelites in the Old Testament. There were two important covenants in Scottish history, the National Covenant and the Solemn League and Covenant.
The Illustrated London News appeared first on Saturday 14 May 1842, as the world’s first illustrated weekly news magazine. Founded by Herbert Ingram, it appeared weekly until 1971, then less frequently thereafter, and ceased publication in 2003. The company continues today as Illustrated London News Ltd, a publishing, content and digital agency in London, which holds the publication and business archives of the magazine.